Meaning of Hydrocephalus:-
Hydrocephalus is a primary characteristic of excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain. Hydrocephalus was also known as “water” of the brain. ‘Water” is Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which means a clear liquid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal dilation of the space in the brain called ventricles and these dilation causes harmful pressure an the tissues of the brain Hydrocephalus may be Congenital, Acquired or Normal pressure hydrocephalus.
a) Congenital Hydrocephalus-IT is present at birth and may be caused by genetic abnormalities or developmental disorders such as spina bifida and encephalocele.
b) Acquired Hydrocephalus-Is developed at the same time at the birth or afterwards and can effect individuals of all ages for ex. hydrocephalus ex-vacuo occurs when there is damage in the brain due to stroke or traumatic injuries.
c) Normal pressure Hydrocephalus- It often occurs mostly among elders. It may result from a subarachnoid hemorrhage, Head trauma, infection, tumor, or complications of surgery, although many people develop normal pressure hydrocephalus with out any certain cause. Symptoms of it varies with age, disease progression , individual differences in tolerance of CSF.
Indication of Hydrocephalus-
It is usually found in infants by rapid increase in their head circumference and unusual large size of head .In elder children and adult symptoms are like headache followed by vomiting , nausea, papilledema(swelling of optic disk -part of optic nerve) down deviation of eyes are called sunsetting, Problem with balance, poor coordination , gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, slowing or loss of development in children, lethargy, drowsiness, irritability, or other changes in personality or cognition, including memory loss. Hydrocephalus is diagnosed through clinical neurological evaluation and by using carnial imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , or pressure – monitoring techniques.
Treatment for this Disease:-
Hydrocephalus is almost treated with surgical placement of a shunt system. which divert the flow of CSF from the site within the central part of nervous system to another area of the body where it can be absorbed as part of circulatory process. Very limited numbers of patients can be treated with an alternative procedure called Third Ventriculostomy, like this way a small hole is made in the floor of the third ventricle, allowing the CSF to pass the obstruction and flow toward the site of resumptions around the surface of the brain.
Meaning of Prognosis-
Prognosis is diagnosed for patients with hydrocephalus as difficult to predict where as there is some coo-relation between specific cause of hydrocephalus and outcome of patient. prognosis is complicated by the presence of some associated disorders, timeliness diagnosis and success of treatment. If it is not treated in the right time the symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus usually get worse. Some people may get experience temporary improvements. If left untreated , progressive hydrocephalus is fatal, with rare exceptions. The parent of the children with hydrocephalus should be aware that hydrocephalus poses risk to both cognitive and physical development. Treatment by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals, rehabilitation specialist and educational experts is critical for a positive outcome. Many children diagnosed with the disorder benefit from rehabilitation therapies and educational interventions and go on to lead normal lives with few limitations.
Research done are:-
NINDS conducts and supports a wide range of fundamental studies that explore the complex mechanisms of normal brain development. The knowledge gained from these studies provides the foundation for understanding how this process can go awry and thus, offers hope foe new means of treatment and preventions of developed brain disorders such as congenital hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus is excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium persistent and progressive is treated by shunt insertion.
You can prevent Hydrocephalus:-
To Prevent Hydrocephalus Sulphur, Calcerea, Phosphorous, should be given to the mothers to her next pregnancy- grauvogl’s. (especially those mothers who have already lost one or more children due to hydrocephalus )
Homoeopathic treatment: Apis Mel, Calc. Carb, Lycopodium, Nat. Sulph, Sulpher should be given on symptom needed.